In terms of complexity theory, you cant design emergence, but you can design spaces that are open and provide interesting affordances. The simplest way to describe how this is done is that the learning, and the learning space, should be specified as negative constraints, rather than as positive outcomes. In other words, you specify what is NOT allowed to happen, rather than what IS going to happen - however loosely or tightly you want to do so. Many field sports are good examples of this, and Keith Hamon's example of soccer is a case in point. In soccer, the rules are largely negative constraints. So, no 'hand-ball', but there is no limit on other parts of the body you can use to play the ball; you certainly don't have to use your feet all the time, its up to you.

Keith Hamon writes that "To my mind, one of the most potent strategies for encouraging autonomy is creating space. This is the strategy that the connectivist MOOCs such as Rhizo14 employ most often. Creating space is not something taught in most educational programs ... When I coached soccer, the most difficult concept to teach players was spaceā€”the empty part of the pitch where the ball and the other players are not". Read more ...